In Brazil, between December 2016 and May 15th, 2017, there have been 715 confirmed cases of yellow fever, including 240 deaths. 6 states in Brazil have confirmed local transmission, while 5 other countries – Peru, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Suriname – have a few reported suspected or confirmed cases.

As the weather cools in the southern hemisphere, the overall incidence of yellow fever cases is likely to decrease.

Since yellow fever is a vaccine-preventable disease and given the low vaccination coverage in this region, vaccination is recommended. However, the influx of yellow fever vaccines into Angola in 2016 and Brazil in 2017 have caused global stocks to diminish, which may lead to local shortages for travelers. Additional prevention methods include avoiding mosquito bites by eliminating standing water and using long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and insect repellents.

The mass vaccination campaign and onset of cold weather will continue to reduce the incidence of yellow fever in Brazil. Countries in Central America need to be on alert for potential transmission northward as the weather warms.